Business Analyst Roles and Responsibilities , job description and duties

Business Analyst Roles and Responsibilities, job description and duties, Salary and benefits

Let us discuss Business Analyst Roles and Responsibilities, job description and duties, Salary and benefits about With growing competition and hunger to be the best in industry there is a need for consistent performance and perseverance to achieve the success in business.

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The 19 Best Data Visualization Tools and Software for 2022

The 19 Best Data Visualization Tools and Software for 2022

Results Review’s table of the stylish data visualization tools is a periodic mashup of products that stylish represent current request conditions, according to the crowd. Our editors named the stylish data visualization tools grounded on each result’s Authority Score; a meta- analysis of real stoner sentiment through the web’s most trusted business software review spots and our own personal five- point addition criteria. The editors at Results Review have developed this resource to help buyers in hunt of the be data visualization tools to fit the requirements of their association. Choosing the right seller and result can be a complicated process — one that requires in- depth exploration and frequently comes down to further than just the result and its specialized capabilities. To make your hunt a little easier, we ’ve penciled the stylish data visualization tools providers each in one place. We ’ve also included platform and product line names and introductory software tutorials straight from the source so you can see each result in action.


Note : The stylish data visualization tools are listed in alphabetical order.

What is Data Mapping?

The Best Data Visualization Tools Platform

ChartBlocks Description

ChartBlocks offers an online map structure tool that lets you import your data, design a map, and also partake it with ease. No coding is needed to enable druggies to make maps via a simple developer. You can also choose from dozens of different map types and pull data from nearly any source. ChartBlocks supports creating maps that pull data from multiple sources as well. The tool touts a data import wizard that takes you through the entire process step-by- step. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Cyfe Description

Cyfe offers a business dashboard creator that lets you cover and fantasize important data (social media, analytics, marketing, deals, support) in one place. The product features a number of pre-built dashboard templates that can be modified to meet specific requirements. Druggies can also pull data from popular sources, and Cyfe touts further than 100 integrations and 250 criteria out-of-the-box. There are automated reports and contrivance cautions as well, which can be downloaded or listed. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Databox Description

Databox offers a business analytics platform for KPI dashboards that pulls organizational data into one place so druggies can track performance and discover perceptivity in real- time. The product lets you mix and match criteria from different sources into one dashboard. Databox features a DIY Dashboard Developer that enables druggies to pull the criteria they need, fantasize KPIs in a number of ways, and make dashboards without the need for special coding or design chops. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Datawrapper Description

Datawrapper provides a web tool for creating a variety of interactive maps and charts. No law or design chops are needed, and maps can be bedded in your website. Druggies can simply copy data from Excel or Google Wastes or upload CSV lines or link to a URL for live-updating. The introductory ( free) interpretation allows for 1 stoner, 1 locator chart, and map views per month. There are also several paid immolations that include access for fresh druggies and more advanced capabilities. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Easy Sapience Description

Easy Insight offers a pall business intelligence tool that enables you to produce reports and dashboards and fantasize data through maps and tables. The product also enables the combination of different services in databases so druggies can produce a single view of guests across multiple apps. Easy Insight also touts the capability to produce and modernize data right from your reports, as well as drill from maps into detailed data and click right back to the source. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Exago BI Description

Exago BI is fully web- grounded and a high bedded result for software companies looking to give ad hoc reporting, dashboards, and business analysis to their guests. Integration with web- grounded SaaS and or on-prem operations allows non-technical druggies to produce reports and dashboards with no IT intervention. Exago BI offers a wide variety of advanced features including interactive data visualizations, geo- charts, drill- campo, stoner- defined formulas, and data incorporating into predefined templates. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Grapher Description

Golden Software’s Grapher is a full- function graphing operation for scientists, masterminds, and business professionals. The product touts further than 80 unique and customizable 2D and 3D graph styles. Graphs can be enhanced with legends, titles and markers, totality plots, graph magnifiers, and statistical reports. Grapher also includes expansive analysis maps, tools, and statistical features to identify trends, find new perceptivity and give a holistic view of data. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Geckoboard Description

Geckoboard offers a data dashboard product that makes it easy for you to partake important data, criteria and KPIs easily. The tool helps to streamline data from spreadsheets, databases and other tools for donation purposes. Real- time criteria and further than 60 integrations make it easy to produce live dashboards. Geckoboard also touts an unmissable summary of crucial performance pointers. Druggies can fluently partake dashboards with platoon members through dispatch, converse, documents, or bookmark them for quick access. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform.

iDashboards Description

iDashboards offers a data visualization platform for guests in a wide array of perpendicular diligence. The product features customizable and flexible dashboard tools that integrate with popular data sources. iDashboards lets druggies snappily view and dissect critical performance criteria as well. Dashboards can be created on any device while the result touts hundreds of map options for data visualizations of any kind. Druggies can partake dashboards internally or intimately to keep the reverse- end secure. Part- grounded warrants and other integrations are also available. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Infogram Description

Infogram offers an intuitive data visualization tool for druggies of varying skill situations. The product features ready-to- use templates and custom templates with your brand, colors, sources, and totem. Infogram also touts interactive content via object robustness like setting objects to zoom, bounce, flip and fade, as well as enhanced interactivity through tooltips, tabs, clickable legends, and linking. Brigades can be organized into groups and warrants can be set by part. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Klipfolio Description

Klipfolio offers a custom dashboard and reporting tool that combines formulas, functions, and data modeling to help druggies make practicable reports. Guests can choose from pre-built visualizations in the Klip gallery or incorporate personal branding with custom themes. Klipfolio enables the sharing of dashboards and reports via view-only links, PDFs, listed emails, or Slack dispatches. The result provider offers free add-on products like Power Metrics (featherlight data analytics) and MetricHQ (online wordbook of criteria and KPIs) as well. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Power BI Affiliated products

Power BI Desktop, Power BI Report Garçon Description Microsoft is a major player in enterprise BI and analytics. The company’s flagship platform, Power BI, is pall- grounded and delivered on the Azure Cloud. On-prem capabilities also live for individual druggies or when power druggies are penning complex data mashups using in- house data sources. Power BI is unique because it enables druggies to do data medication, data discovery, and dashboards with the same design tool. The platform integrates with Excel and Office 365, and has a veritably active stoner community that extends the tool’s capabilities. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

pi Description

pi is a three-in-one result that combines business intelligence with simple reporting and prophetic logical capabilities via tone- service dashboards. Druggies can white marker the software and bed it into being SaaS products or hook it up to pall data warehousing and ETL tools for a further flawless experience. pi also centralizes colorful sources of data and uses AI analytics and robotization to make perceptivity readily available while dashboards can be fully customized for each customer without the need to write law. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Tableau Desktop Affiliated products

Tableau Prep, Tableau Garçon, Tableau Online, Tableau Data Management Description Tableau offers an extensive visual BI and analytics platform, and is extensively regarded as the major player in the business. The company’s logical software portfolio is available through three main channels Tableau Desktop, Tableau Garçon, and Tableau Online. Tableau connects to hundreds of data sources and is available on-prem or in the pall. The seller also offers bedded analytics capabilities, and druggies can fantasize and partake data with Tableau Public. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Toucan Toco Description

Toucan offers a data liar platform designed for the non-technical decision-maker. The product lets druggies communicate practicable perceptivity via a erected-in no- law frame. Toucan Toco adapts to operation habits by planting apps to all bias snappily without fresh work, installation, or post-deployment conservation. Included collaboration capabilities can be employed via native integrations with Brigades and Slack. The tool also touts an adaptive design and the capability to bed maps to websites or other platforms. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Visme Description :

Visme is an each- by-one visual communication tool that lets druggies produce donations, infographics, reports, social plates, and more. The tool features further than 40 different map and illustration types bar graph, pie map, flowcharts, plates, line graphs, histograms), as well as live data integration and an easy-to- use graph maker. Graphs can be fluently participated, downloaded, or bedded as well. Visme touts a free library of map templates, millions of stock prints and icons, the capability to customize brand sources and colors, and a drag-and- drop interface. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review Platform

Zoho Analytics Description :

Zoho Analytics is a tone- service BI and data analytics tool that lets you incorporate data from a wide range of sources, blend it together, and produce cross-functional reports and dashboards. The product features a drag-and- drop developer, as well as different visualization tools to drill down to specifics. A “smart” adjunct called Zia can answer questions in the form of reports and KPI contraptions via AI, machine literacy and natural language processing. Druggies can partake and publish reports and smart data cautions ding you when outliers or anomalies be. Buyer’s Companion for Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms. Learn further and compare products with the Results Review.

Joint Application Development (JAD)

Joint Application Development

What is JAD (Joint Application Development) ?

Background of JAD Definition of JAD Joint Application Development (JAD) is a process that accelerates the design of information technology results. JAD uses client involvement and group dynamics to directly depict the User view of the business need and to concertedly develop a result.


Before the arrival of JAD, conditions were linked by canvassing stakeholders collectively. The ineffectiveness of this canvassing fashion, which concentrated on individual input rather than group agreement, led to the development of the JAD approach. JAD offers a platoon- acquainted approach to the development of information operation results that emphasize a agreement grounded problem- working model.

By incorporating eased shops and emphasizing a spirit of cooperation, JAD enables system conditions to be proved more snappily and directly than if a traditional approach were used. JAD combines technology and business requirements in a process that’s harmonious, unremarkable, and effective.

History of JAD and JAD full form:

Chuck Morris of IBM conceived JAD in 1977 as a system for gathering the conditions for geographically distributed systems. In 1980, IBM Canada espoused and meliorated the approach. In 1984, IBM homogenized JAD by publishing the JAD Overview leaflet. By the late 1980s, numerous companies were enforcing eased JAD shops for analysis and design. Because JAD has evolved over the times to include similar rudiments as prototyping, some people consider it a complete development methodology and have begun to call it Joint  Application development.

Unfortunately, the only portions of a general development methodology for JAD that were homogenized were the description, analysis, and design portions. The rest of the development was conducted in the spirit of JAD, but without the rigor of a defined process.

When to use JAD

JAD can be successfully applied to a wide range of systems, including the following

  • New systems ·
  • Enhancements to being systems ·
  • System transformations ·
  • Purchase of a system Design Characteristics

Not all systems, still, are good campaigners for JAD. An applicable design exhibits at least some of the following characteristics Involves numerous groups of User whose liabilities cross traditional department or division boundaries · Is considered critical to the unborn success of the association · Involves willing User · Is a first- time design for the association · Has a worried design history or relationship between the systems and User associations Although the characteristics above describe a good JAD seeker design, all the characteristics shouldn’t be present in your first JAD systems. As the development platoon and the client come more comfortable with the JAD approach, more complex systems can be accepted. JAD Actors Executive sponsor.

The Executive Sponsor

The executive sponsor is the person from the guest’s association who has the ultimate authority to make opinions about the design. The sponsor may be the Customers design leader, the CIO, or, in some cases, the CEO. The facilitator works with the sponsor to get the design started; it’s essential, still, that the sponsor make crucial opinions, not the facilitator.

The executive sponsor has the following liabilities ·

  • Accept ultimate authority and responsibility for the functional area to be addressed by the system.
  • Resolve business policy conflicts by being the ultimate decision maker.
  • Honor the results of the JAD process. ·
  • Set the vision for the project. ·
  • Ensure the project team has access to and commitment from the right business user experts. ·
  • Communicate client support and cooperation.
  • The executive sponsor gives the JAD process credibility in the Customers eyes. During the JAD exposure, the sponsor addresses the entire platoon to express support for a collaborative trouble and to confirm that the JAD process has the pots support.
  • The executive sponsor must also express confidence in the facilitator during the exposure session. The sponsors address helps minimize the original resistance that client representatives may feel toward sharing in the JAD trouble.
  • The executive sponsor is the only JAD party who typically doesn’t attend the JAD sessions.
  • The executive sponsor need only stop in sometimes to show uninterrupted interest in and commitment to the process.


The success or failure of the JAD process is nearly tied to how well the facilitator handles the session. This person must be largely trained as a facilitator and must have an excellent working knowledge of the tools and ways to be used for capturing conditions in the JAD sessions.

The facilitator must also be suitable to communicate effectively with the different personality types present on a JAD platoon.

The liabilities of JAD facilitators include the following ·

  • Organize and record JAD conditioning. ·
  • Guide the JAD sessions. ·
  • Intervene controversies.
  • Encourage participation. ·
  • Maintain focus. ·

It’s critical that the facilitator be unprejudiced and have no vested interest in the outgrowth of the session. Opting the facilitator from the IT providers association interferes with the thing of creating a sense of platoon spirit among the actors. Despite the crucial part the facilitator plays in a JAD session, Andrews and Leventhal point out that the focus of attention should always be on the JAD process itself, not the individual facilitator.

A successful facilitator needs to know how and when to ask the right questions, and be suitable to identify when commodity doesn’t sound right.

As the facilitator, you need to know what the (JAD) session actors are trying to negotiate technologically.


User have the following liabilities in the JAD process

  • Serve as the main focus of JAD (User make up 65 percent to 75 percent of the total group). ·
  • Give business moxie. ·
  • Represent the strategic, politic, or functional direction of the business. ·
  • Represent all major User groups or coalitions affected by the design. ·
  • Represent multiple situations of the association.

IT Representative

IT representatives advance specialized advice when it’s needed, help develop logical models and specifications, and make the prototype. To perform these tasks, they must be knowledgeable about the JAD process and the tools and styles being used. IT representatives are generally some of the crucial inventors of the system. They use the JAD occasion to come experts in the Customers business functions. Whatever their position of moxie, still, they mustn’t try to force the decision? making process, but rather help in developing the User view of the result.

IT representatives have the following liabilities in the JAD process ·
  • Help client turn ideas into models of business conditions. ·
  • Insure all technological constraints are represented. ·
  • Develop an understanding of User business goals, priorities, and strategies. ·
  • Represent job functions similar as data administration, business analysis, programming, prototyping, and product/ operations operation. ·
  • Insure a result that’s realistic for the budget, can be delivered when demanded, and takes advantage of available technology most effectively.


The scribe participates in JAD conversations to clarify points and capture them rightly. The scribe may ask the facilitator to stop the process whenever necessary to review, gain interpretations, or offer restating. The scribe shouldn’t be needed to share in the ongoing conversations as an IT representative or User representative. The scribe should no way double as the facilitator.

A facilitator who’s also acting as the scribe can beget the JAD sessions to bog down significantly.

Scribes have the following liabilities in the JAD process ·

  • Insure that the results of JAD sessions are proved and delivered as planned. ·
  • Serve as a mate to the facilitator before, during, and after the factory. ·
  • Give reference and review information for the facilitator.


An Observer has the following liabilities in the JAD process ·

  • Watch and hear. ·
  • Learn about User requirements and factory opinions. ·
  • Interact with the actors and facilitator only during breaks or ahead and after sessions.

JAD(Joint Application Development)

Life Cycle Planning/ Definition

To complete the Planning stage, perform the following tasks ·

  • Designate the executive sponsor. ·
  • Establish the need for the system. ·
  • Select platoon members for the description element. ·
  • Define the compass of the session.

These are general stages of a JAD and don’t indicate any specific methodology. Numerous books have been written on JAD, and each tends to describe JAD stages and phases in its own way, but the generalities are analogous. Planning and Description can be combined if the compass of the design is small. The deliverables from the Description stage can be completed by conducting a JAD session with high position directors. It’s possible to have a Finalization phase after Planning and Description that sells the business and leads to the Planning stage of the factual design.

Planning Phase/ Description Stage

The starting point for any JAD process is the designation of an executive sponsor. During the Planning phase, the facilitator should be working nearly with this sponsor to give an exposure to the JAD process and JAD terrain. The executive sponsors full commitment to the design is critical to its success.

After an executive sponsor is linked, the coming task is to establish the need for the system by asking the following questions

  • What are the anticipated benefits? ·
  • What openings does it address? ·
  • What problems would it resolve? ·
  • What are the pitfalls? ·
  • How does it fit in with the strategic direction of the association?

Still, the executive sponsor and facilitator elect the platoon members who’ll share in the Description phase, If it’s determined that the design should be accepted. You may also want to elect the platoon members for the design sessions at this time. However, begin working to develop the correct blend of people for the JAD session, If this doesn’t feel applicable.


To complete the Preparation stage, you must perform the following tasks ·

  • Schedule design sessions. ·
  • Conduct exposure and training for design session actors. ·
  • Prepare the accoutrements, room, and software aids. ·
  • Customize the design session docket. ·
  • Conduct the onset meeting.

After the compass is set, the design sessions are listed and the sharing platoon members are informed. In utmost cases, a particular fashion or methodology will be followed in the JAD sessions.

To insure participation, the client must be educated in the language that will be used and the deliverables that will be created in the JAD sessions. Other medication tasks include preparing the room with the proper outfit (PC, workstation, overhead projector, flip maps, labels, white boards, and so forth), carrying any software aids, and preparing the reference accoutrements and description attestation that will be substantiated throughout the design sessions.

An docket is also prepared so that the objects for each design session are easily stated and the actors can stay focused on the work to be done.

The final Preparation step is the onset meeting, at which the executive sponsor addresses the platoon members and shows support for the JAD trouble. This meeting is a crucial element of JAD. In associations using JAD for the first time, the meeting will minimize resistance within the Customers association and inflame a spirit of cooperation.

A high- position explanation of the JAD process is given, rather by the executive sponsor. However, the facilitator can present the exposure, If the sponsor is uncomfortable doing this. The pretensions of the design are stated and everyone is made to feel a part of the process. Original enterprises are expressed, and the executive sponsor works to ease any fears. The executive sponsor also gives a particular statement of support for the facilitator. A successful exposure is crucial to starting off the JAD process on a good footing. Everyone should leave with a sense of pride in what’s going to be and with confidence that they will be performing a highly valued service for the company.

Design Sessions

  • To complete the Design Session element of JAD, you must perform the following tasks · Review the design compass, objects, and description document. ·
  • Identify data, process, and system conditions. ·
  • Identify system interfaces. ·
  • Develop a prototype. ·
  • Document opinions, issues, hypotheticals, and delineations of terms. ·
  • Assign someone to resolve all issues.

The session objects determine which ways are used in the design session and what deliverables are created. A good starting point, still, is to review the description document that was prepared during the description phase. This document outlines the systems compass, anticipated benefits, and high- position conditions.

The facilitator should constantly review the session pretensions and objects, and report on how the sessions progress relates to the overall design.

The facilitator should also designate a person who’ll be responsible for resolving each issue or concern proved during the session. A resolution date must also be assigned. Posterior design sessions can also begin with a discussion of any issues that have been resolved.


To complete the Finalization element, you must perform the following tasks ·

  • Complete the design documents. ·
  • Subscribe off on the design documents. ·
  • Make a presentation to the executive sponsor. ·
  • Demonstrate the prototype. ·
  • Gain the superintendent sponsors blessing to do. ·
  • Estimate the JAD process.
  • The first thing of the Finalization element is to gain check on the deliverables by reaching a platoon agreement that all necessary rudiments have been incorporated to fit the systems compass.
  • The alternate thing is to produce a high- quality donation that includes a prototype demonstration (if applicable).
  • The third thing is to prepare a document that includes all of the deliverables that will be substantiated in the unborn development trouble. The donation and prototype demonstration should be given to the executive sponsor, as well as to other leaders.

The thing is to get blessing to do to the coming stage of development. The platoon members, executive sponsor, and facilitator should also take some time to estimate the effectiveness of the JAD process and to bandy ways to ameliorate that process for unborn use.

Benefits of JAD (Joint Application Development)

The JAD approach provides the following benefits ·

  • Accelerates design ·
  • Enhances quality ·
  • Promotes cooperation with the client ·
  • Creates a design from the Customers perspective ·
  • Lowers development and conservation costs

JAD(Joint Application Development)achieves these benefits because of the following factors ·

  • The decision makers are each present. ·
  • The facilitator keeps the group concentrated on the pretensions. ·
  • Hypotheticals are proved and understood. ·
  • Differing views are handled immediately. ·
  • Most errors are caught in the Analysis and Design stages. ·
  • The system design reflects the user’s desires. ·
  • Issues are resolved quickly. ·
  • Assumptions are documented and understood. ·

The process tends to gain instigation, not lose it. When actors believe that they’ve had control over a systems trouble and content, they believe in the results as well. This sense of power is critical for the coming step, whether that step is enforcing the results or dealing them to others.

Testimonials In Joint Application Development,

A study of over 60 systems. showed that those systems that didn’t use JAD missed up to 35 of needed functionality performing in the need for over to 50 further law. The Capers Jones study determined that systems that used JAD missed only 5 percent to 10 percent of needed functionality with minimum impact on the law. · David Freedman states, how do you design a system that User really want?. You can’t. What you can do is help User design the systems they want. · The successful use of JAD has pushed its use beyond traditional operations of the process. JAD is being used successfully for strategic systems and data planning, as well as for systems outside the IS community. — General Electric · In The Data Modeling Text, MichaelC. Reingruber and WilliamW. Gregory stress the significance of involving the client, stating the following If business experts aren’t involved, your modeling trouble will fail. There’s no guarantee of success when business experts are involved. But there’s no chance of success if they’re not. Making JAD Successful Participation Rules

The following are general rules under which JAD actors should operate ·
  • Gain agreement. ·
  • Agree on a time limit rule for dissensions. ·
  • Establish the executive sponsor as the tiebreaker. ·
  • Bear obligatory attendance. ·
  • Stress that all actors are equal anyhow of job law. ·
  • Bear open participation. ·
  • Allow only one discussion to do at a time. ·
  • Respond to ideas, not to people.

These rules are designed to address issues that can intrude with participation and agreement, and to emphasize that actors job titles should have no influence during a JAD session. The platoon can develop variations of these rules, but be sure to set up the rules formally and post them nearly in the room. It’s important that all the actors, as well as the facilitator, contribute to administering these rules.

Tips for a Successful JAD(Joint Application Development)

Follow the suggestions below to insure a successful JAD process

  • Make sure the facilitator is completely trained. ·
  • Conduct an exposure for all actors. ·
  • Make sure User representatives are duly trained. ·
  • Don’t begin until each JAD part is filled.
  • Hold sessions off point. · Hold sessions only when all decision makers are present. ·
  • Document all hypotheticals and issues. ·
  • Assign responsibility and resolve all issues.

JAD (Joint Application Development)  Critical Success Factors

The following are critical success factors that bear from the launch ·

  • Help compass creep. ·
  • Prevent Scope Creep.
  • Identify and address critical political and organizational issues beforehand. ·
  • Make sure that all design actors and crucial superintendent directors are committed to the JAD ways. ·
  • Divide large systems into manageable units.

Still, you greatly increase your chances of failure, If any of these critical success factors are compromised. Modularizing large systems into manageable units can help sustain interest and provocation during long JAD systems. By modularizing the design, you can apply a module linked delivery approach in which each module is delivered in a four to six-month time frame.

In Joint Application Development, Jane Wood and Denise Silver present critical success factors in terms of the following ten commandments of JAD.

  1. JAD success requires operation commitment.
  2. Full time actors must attend the entire session.
  3. JAD success requires a trained facilitator.
  4. Make sure you have the right people in the session.
  5. All actors are equal.
  6. JAD medication is as important as the JAD session itself.
  7. Make a good docket and stick to it.
  8. Use applicable tools and ways in the session.
  9. Keep specialized slang to a minimum.
  10. Produce a quality final document snappily.

Conclusion :

The purpose of JAD is to bring together in a structured factory setting; to prize agreement- grounded system conditions. This is fulfilled by using a trained JAD facilitators and customized, planned dockets to help the party in arriving at complete, high quality conditions. Experience has shown that the JAD process mainly reduces development time, costs and crimes. JAD is used as a fashion for developing business system conditions and is generally used in the early stages of a systems development design.

What Is Sanity Testing?

I want to talk about what is SanityTesting and who will do the sanity testing and few advantages by performing SanityTesting. There are many testing methods; SanityTesting is one of the method.

What is Sanity Testing

Topics Covered

1. What Is SanityTesting?

2. Who will do the SanityTesting?

3. The Best Way To Do SanityTesting?

4. SanityTesting Steps

5. Advantages Of SanityTesting

1. What Is SanityTesting?

In SanityTesting, once development is completed, build will be generated and same will be released for testing. User tests the functionality of the software build, whether the functionality is working as per requirement or not. User tests whether critical functionalities are working or not. In simple terms we can tell, Sanity Testing focuses on testing specific functionality after making changes to the code and fixing any bugs.

The aim is to make sure that any reported bugs have been fixed and that the specified functionality works correctly.

2.Who will do the Sanity Testing?

It depends on the organization, in some organizations Business Analyst will do the SanityTesting to ensure no bugs or less bugs in application. It helps Business Analyst to understand the Application functionality.

Here we need not to execute all the test cases, we can test some important and critical test cases. Or else we can review the test case results if this is done by QA team.

3. The Best Way To Do Sanity Testing

As we discussed in above point, it is up to the team and organization that how to perform sanity testing. There is no particular method or document to perform sanity testing.

4. Sanity Testing Steps

As we discussed there is no particular order or steps to perform SanityTesting. But we will try to follow some tips to ensure critical functionalities of the application are working.

  1. Identify : First understand the requirement and functionality of the application. Then identify what needs to be tested. It is required for any type of testing. This includes functionality, features, and modifications that were introduced to the relevant code or build.
  2. Validate : The testers will check and validate all of the identified functionality, features, and modifications from the above step.
  3. Testing : Team will test all the functionalities, features and modifications from the above step. This ensures that application functionality is working as expected.

5. Advantages Of Sanity Testing:

  • As team tested end to end functionality, it helps to avoid escalation from the client.
  • As functionality has fewer bugs or no bugs, it improves client satisfaction.
  • As team tests on concentrated functionality, it is easy to identify the bugs.

There are many testing methods, Functional testing, and integration testing (SIT), Black box testing, regression testing, smoke testing and all.

What is a BRD (Business Requirements Document) ?

I want to discuss about what is a BRD and how to prepare BRD?

Topics Covered in this Article:

  1. What is a BRD or Business Requirements Document?

  2. Who will prepare the BRD and who is Responsible for BRD?

  3. Objectives of a business requirement document?

  4. Business Requirements Document- Key elements

  5. How to prepare BRD?

  6. Business Requirement Document Template – Sample Template.

  7. Tips for writing a business requirements document?

What is a BRD
What is a BRD

1.What is a BRD or Business Requirements Document?

BRD is a Business Requirement Document, in some organizations it is also called as Business Requirements Specifications Document. By seeing the name we can understand in this document we will capture all the requirements and how we are going to provide solution to the client. We can say it is the communication document between Business and Technical Team.

In simple words we can say, BRD indicates what the business wants to achieve.  The BRD indicates all the project deliverable and the inputs and outputs associated with each process function. This document will have customer needs and expectations.

BRD definition: “A Business Requirement Document (BRD) focuses on the business perspective as it holds the details of the business solution for a project.”

2.Who will prepare the BRD and who is Responsible for BRD?

Business Analyst prepares this document with the help of respective stakeholders. While creating Business requirements document, we should include the project stake holders, and the Business stake holders, that means we should invite or include all the stake holders who are needed to complete this project smoothly.

In some organizations client prepares the BRD and share with IT organization to deliver their changes or requirements, once IT team receives the BRD then they will do the feasibility analysis and release FSD or FRD based on the BRD.

Who should be involved in business requirements document creation?

A number of teams and partners should create the BRD:

  1. Core team of the project (BA, Development Team, QA and all)
  2. Business partner’s or stake holders
  3. Process owner(s) or representatives
  4. Subject matter experts
  5. Change/project/product management, quality department and/or IT management as needed or available
  6. Change Management Team.

3. Objectives of a business requirement document?

  1. To get an agreement and common understanding among all the stakeholders
  1. Communicate to the technology server provider, the business needs, the customer needs, and what the solution needs to provide to satisfy business and customer needs
  2. Describe in details of the customer needs or requirements.
  3. Describe clearly what solution we are going to provide.

4.Business Requirements Document- Key elements

A Business Analyst or Project Manager prepares the Business Requirement Document as they have good understanding on the client requirements and if there is any ambiguity or clarification required from client, then they are the persons can reach the Business stake holders.

The most important and critical component of a Business Requirement Document is the scope of the project.  We (Project Managers and Business Analysts) should understand the restrictions and constraints.

  • Why project initiated
  • What is the goal or objective of the project?
  • What are the problems which the business wants to solve?
  • What are the restrictions?
  • What are the limitations?
  • Is it worth to invest the time and money required for the project?

5.How to prepare / Business Requirement Document BRD?

We should take care of few important things before creating BRD.

  • We should define the need or requirement of the company or organizations.
  • We should ensure all the stake holders involved.
  • We should identify the phases of the project.
  • We can use a suitable template to capture the requirements.

6. Business Requirement Document Template – Sample Template.

  • Document revision
  • Approvals
  • Introduction
  • Business goals and objectives
  • Stake holders
  • Business rules
  • Project background
  • Project objective
  • Project scope
  • In-scope functionality (Requirements)
  • Out-scope functionality (Requirements)
  • Business requirements
  • Data requirements
  • Functional requirements
  • Non_functional requirements
  • Assumptions
  • Constraints
  • Risks
  • Business process overview (modeling diagrams for instance, Use Case and Activity Diagram)
  • Legacy systems
  • Proposed recommendations
  • List of acronyms
  • Glossary of terms
  • Related documents
  • Dependencies of existing systems

This document may vary depends on the organizations, some organizations may have their own template and format. If no standard template or format not available in your organization then you can use the suitable template as per your client requirements.

7.Tips for writing a business requirements document

Here I am trying to give some simple tips to write Business Requirement Document.

  • Engage stakeholders:Encourage all the project stakeholders to get involved in elicitation techniques such as brainstorming, surveys, focus groups, interviews, and ideas for prototyping.
  • Include mockups:Include visuals and graphical representations, such as charts and diagrams, when necessary, as they can be powerful in making your point. We can use so many open source tools to draw diagrams and to create process flow diagrams and charts.
  • Do feasibility research:Research some of the past projects to determine the feasibility of your BRD. Evaluate your project to understand whether the solution desired can be developed within the constraints of time & cost.
  • Use Simple Language:Don’t use complex words rather use simple easy to understand language that encourages action.
  • Validate the Document and contents:After writing the business requirements document, have it reviewed thoroughly before distribution. Obtain validation of the information and the contents–including the assumptions–and ensure that all errors are corrected.

8. What are the differcnes between BRD and FRD?

What is RACI Matrix?

I want to discuss about RACI Matrix, what RACI Matrix is and what the advantages are by using this in this article.

What is RACI Matrix
What is RACI Matrix

Topics Covered in this Article:

  1. What is RACI matrix?

  2. What is a RACI chart?

  3. What does RACI stand for?

  4. RACI definitions

  5. Advantages of a RACI chart

  6. When to use a RACI matrix

  7. How to create a RACI matrix: Example & template

  8. RACI matrix rules

What is RACI matrix?

I will try to explain in simple words, when we are working in an organization or in a project, we should know who Responsible is for what tasks and who is Accountable. It helps to track the project that particular task is pending with whom or assigned to whom. So to understand that,  will prepare RACI chart.

What is a RACI chart?

A RACI chart is a simple matrix used to assign roles and responsibilities for each task, or decision on a project. By clearly mapping out which roles are involved in each project task and at which level, you can eliminate confusion and answer the project question,  who’s doing what?

What does RACI stand for?

RACI stands for ResponsibleAccountableConsultedand Informed. We can observe each letter represents the tasks responsibility.

RACI definitions

  • Responsible: Team member does the work to complete the task. Every task needs at least one Responsible member, but as per project we can assign more.
  • Accountable: This member assigns the work. And this member reviews the completed task before delivery. On some tasks, the Responsible party may also serve as the Accountable We should ensure to each task should assign to one Accountable person.
  • Consulted: These members provide inputs based on their domain experience or knowledge.  They can also provide inputs on how it will impact on future project.
  • Informed: These team members simply need to be marked in the loop on project progress.

Advantages of a RACI chart

  • A RACI matrix helps us to set clear expectations about project roles and responsibilities.
  • It helps us to avoid multiple people work on same task.

When to use a RACI

If you want to know who is performing which task then RACI will help you to understand easily. It avoids the confusion in team.

  • The decision-making or approval process could hold up the project.
  • There’s conflict about task ownership or decision-making.
  • The project workload feels like it’s not distributed evenly.

And please understand we need to create RACI matrix based on the project and team. This is not same for all the projects and teams. We need to assign the roles as per our requirement and our project.

How to create a RACI 

We can create a RACI matrix easily and quickly with using Excel. We need not to learn any new software or technology to create RACI matrix. However we need to understand the roles and who is going to own that particulars tasks to prepare.

  1. Enter all project roles or team member names across the top row.
  2. List all tasks, milestones, and decisions down the left column.
  3. For each task, assign a responsibility value to each role or person on the team.

RACI chart Example

RACI Matrix Definitions

RACI Rules.

Once your RACI chart is complete, review it to be sure it follows these simple rules:

  • Every task has at least one Responsible person.
  • There’s one (and only one!) Accountable party assigned to each task to allow for clear decision-making.
  • No team members are overloaded with too many Responsible tasks.
  • Every team member has a role on each task.
  • If we have a lot of Consulted and Informed roles on our matrix, then we can share the common link to access the project.

What are wireframes?

Topics Covered in this Article:

1.       What are wireframes?

2.     When wireframes to be created?

3.       Some of the advantages of wireframes?

4.       How to create wireframes?

5.       Why wireframes are required?

What are wireframes

1.        What are wireframes?

In simple words we can say wireframe is a diagram, Team use this diagram to understand how the developed product should be.  It helps to internal and external stake holders to understand the same.

 If we have good skills, then we can create mockups and proto types also for better understanding and it provides clear picture to the team.

Sample BA Document Templates


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2.       When wire-frames to be created?

The wireframes or mockups or prototypes should be created before the software development is started. It helps to minimize rework and save the resource time.

If we are following waterfall methodology then wireframes should be created before development stage.

It does not matter how we are preparing the wireframes but ensure it is important that the wireframe designer (UI/UX designer), understands the information that has to be displayed on the screen.

The designer or UI developer has to really understand how the user will interact with the system. If they understand clearly what is the requirement then only they can prepare the wireframes.

So it is very important that requirements should be gathered properly before creating wireframes.

As we discussed in previous articles requirements can be gathered with using multiple elicitation techniques and same will be documented in relevant artifacts.

As requirements will be updated as User Stories or use cases, same will help to        design the wireframes.

3.      Advantages of Wire-frames.

a.      By using wire-frames we can prevent the rework.

b.      It saves resources time.

c.       Wire-frames are easy to use and understand.

d.      It avoids the confusion and misunderstanding within the team members.

e.      Wire-frames are used by the team to have a share understanding of the same information.

f.        Wire-frames are used to help design the user interface.

g.      Coding (Technical) skills not required. 

4.      How to create wire-frames?

There are tools available to create wire-frames. Some of the tools are free and open source; we can use the same to create wire-frames.

And even with using paper and pencil also we can design the wire-frames; or by using white board and pen also we can create the wire-frames, the ultimate goal to create wire-frame is make developers to understand what and how the screen should be.

But using software also has advantages such as data storage, data retrieval and wire-frame reusability. If we use software then we can use this wire-frames in future also when ever required.

To properly create the wire-frames, we need to understand what the buttons to be available in screen are and what the functionality is. And we need to understand what fields to be available on the screen.

By using some open source tools we can create the wire-frames even if you do not have the coding skills.

5.      Why wire-frames are required?

There are so many ways to document the requirements and make development team to understand, but wireframes will help to understand the requirement clearly. Wireframes are easy to draw and easy to understand.


What are wireframes in design?

The designs you received are called wireframes (sometimes called wires, mockups, or mocks). A wireframe is a schematic, a blueprint, useful to help you and your programmers and designers think and communicate about the structure of the software or website you’re building.

What is the use of wireframe?

wireframe is commonly used to lay out content and functionality on a page which takes into account user needs and user journeys. Wireframes are used early in the development process to establish the basic structure of a page before visual design and content is added.

What are wireframes and mockups?

mockup is a static wireframe that includes more stylistic and visual UI details to present a realistic model of what the final page or application will look like. A good way to think of it is that a wireframe is a blueprint and a mockup is a visual model.

What should wireframes include?

wireframe is a two-dimensional illustration of a page’s interface that specifically focuses on space allocation and prioritization of content, functionalities available, and intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics.

What are the different types of wireframes?

There are three main types of wireframes: low-fidelity wireframes, mid-fidelity wireframes, and high-fidelity wireframes.

Is Wireframing UX or UI?

Wireframing is a practice used by UX designers which allows them to define and plan the information hierarchy of their design for a website, app, or product. … Without the distractions of colors, typeface choices or text, wireframing lets you plan the layout and interaction of your interface.

What is an API or Application Programming Interface ?

What is an API? (Application Programming Interface)

What is an API
What is an API

API is the acronym for Application Programming Interface. In simple words we can say it is the communicator between two software applications. It allows software applications to talk each other.

Every day we are interacting with the multiple applications which are integrated with other applications. Example : Amazon, Flipkart, Phonepe etc.. It means every day we are using an API but the thing is we do not know that this is API.

Let us try to discuss and understand what an API with using some examples. I feel by using examples we can understand what is an API is.

For example some applications will allow you to login and use application with using gmail account. And for some applications which will allow you to login and access the application by using your Facebook account.

It means that applications have integration with gmail and Facebook. Here these two applications talk each other and how the request should be and in which format they are expecting request from the sender.

We will discuss in detail with another example to understand what is an API? :

What Is an API and Example?

For example I want to book train tickets, to book train tickets I need not go to IRCTC portal. If you observe by using other applications also we can book the tickets. So here we can understand these two applications are talking each other to execute your request.

Here the main concept is to understand is “Request and Response” How we need to pass the Request and how we are going to get response.

Or how we will give the response and how we are expecting request to give correct response.

If you observe our website, if you register with your email id you will get the immediate response or message. To send email messages I am using some other applications means I am using API to pass values as per their request.

Let us observe one more example which we are using on daily basis to make you understand what is an API in detail.

Here is a real-life API example. We will search for flights online to check the availability and all.  We will have a multiple options to choose from, including different cities, departure and return dates, and more.

Let us imagine that you’re booking you are flight on an airline website. You choose a departure city and date, a return city and date, cabin class, as well as other variables.

In order to book your flight, you interact with the airline’s website to access their database and see if any seats are available on those dates and what the costs might be.

However, what if you are not using the airline’s website–– and you are using some other applications to book the tickets. As all you know now days we are using multiple applications to book flight tickets or some other needs.

The travel service, in this case, interacts with the airline’s API. The API is the interface that,, can be asked by that online travel service to get information from the airline’s database to book seats, baggage options, etc.

The API then takes the airline’s response to your request and delivers it right back to the online travel service, which then shows you the most updated, relevant information.

Software developers or organizations are using below API’s

  1. SOAP Service (API)
  2. REST API (Service)

Developers will write code and use json format or .xml format to form request and response.

As a Business Analyst you need not have deep knowledge on this like how to write code and how developers frame request and response in json or .xml format.  But you should have at least knowledge to how to understand the request and response. It helps you to understand based on the response received.

For example any application or website down usually we receive message as “404 error” based on this response or message we can understand website is down.

I hope it helped you to provide a overview about what is an API?

If you want to know more about what is an API and how to develop API, you can browse on google to understand. Enough material is available in google and youtube.

For Business Analyst perspective it provides overview on what is an API ?

What is Root Cause Analysis (RCA) ?

What is Root Cause Analysis?

What is Root Cause Analysis

Root Cause Analysis is very important it helps us to understand on below. You may have the doubt that what is root cause analysis and who performs the Root cause Analysis, Let us observe below.

  1. What is the issue?
  2. How to prevent these types of issues in future?
  3. Why this issue occurred?
  4. What steps could be taken to not to occur this issue?
  5. What are the preventive actions?
  6. Getting into the roots helps in removing the main cause of the defects.
  7. The RCA helps in getting the exact reason of the problem?

What is a Problem?

An incident which impacts the smooth flow of the process is termed as Issue. And same issue is occurring again and again and impacts the smooth functioning of the application and impacts the business then it termed as problem.

Then we need to perform Root cause Analysis to identify why this issue is happening again and again. Sometimes client also expects RCA document from us.

Usually RCA document contains below.

  1. What is the issue?
  2. Why it happened?
  3. How you fixed that Issue?
  4. What preventive steps to be taken to not to repeat the same issue in future?.

When RCA or RootCause Analysis is required?

Usually RCA is needed when same incident is happening again and again and it is impacting the smooth functioning of the application.

For the smooth functioning of the processes, it is necessary to identify the Root cause of this particular issue and how to prevent the same issue in future.

RCA should be performed as soon as issue or defect identified so that it helps to avoid major problems in future.

Depends on the issue and situation it is suggested to involve the stake holders while conducting the  RCA. Because sometimes issue may occur due to misunderstanding of the application functionality.

Stake holders help in getting away from the fictionalization of the facts.

Below Techniques can be used for RCA.

  1. 5 Why Technique
  2. Tabular Method
  3. Fishbone Diagram

What is Feasibility Study and why it is important?

What is feasibility study?

What is feasibility study
Before accepting or committing any requirement, as a Business Analyst, first we need to do the feasibility study, during (feasibility study) analysis we need to concentrate on below.

  1. The requirement is feasible or not.
  2. Whether it will impact any existing functionalities.
  3. Whether this requirement may cause to any performance issues.
  4. Whether this requirement fits in the current system or not.
  5. What are the dependencies on this requirement?
  6. What are the integration points?
  7. Any impact on integration points?

You can discuss with internal and external stakeholders to understand the requirement clearly, if we not understand requirement clearly, then there is a chance to miss out some functionalities. It may lead to system issues/ bugs or client escalations.

If we delivered defect product then client will not happy and they may lose confidence on us.  So it is very important to understand the requirement clearly before committing to client.

A Analysis  is a preliminary analysis of solution alternatives or options to determine whether and how each option can provide an expected business benefit to meet the business need or requirement.

A Analysis  may address either a business problem to be resolved or a business opportunity to be exploited.

We can do the feasibilitystudy based on the resource and data available with us.  Some tools also can be used to do the feasibility study.

The feasibilitystudy is an integral part of formulating a major business transformation project.  Eg. Re-engineering a core business process and supporting  technology, establishing a new line of business, increasing market share through acquisition, or developing a new product or service.


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