The Defect Life Cycle Explained


What is the defect life cycle?

Defect life cycle is a cycle which a defect goes through during its lifetime. It starts when defect is found and ends when a defect is closed, after ensuring it’s not reproduced. Defect life cycle is related to the bug found during testing.

How many phases the life cycle of defects have?

Defect Life Cycle States:

Active – The Defect is being addressed by the developer and investigation is under progress. At this stage there are two possible outcomes; viz – Deferred or Rejected. Test – The Defect is fixed and ready for testing. Verified – The Defect that is retested and the test has been verified by QA.

What is the defect life cycle in Jira?

The Jira bug life cycle consists of a definite number of steps such as New, Assigned, Opened, Duplicate, Differed, Not a Bug, Rejected, Reopened, Fixed, Retest, Verified, and Closed.

What is defect in STLC?

Defect Life Cycle, also known as Bug Life Cycle, is the journey of a defect, the cycle which a defect goes through during its lifetime. It varies from organization to organization and also from project to project, as it is governed by the software testing process and also depends upon the tools used

What is difference between bug and defect?

A bug is a deviation from the customer’s requirement. The functionality of an application not working as per the customer’s requirement is known as a defect

What is a defect in testing?

What is a defect in testing? A defect is a system error that doesn’t allow the intended action to be completed. Finding defects is the tester’s most important task. It’s important to start testing as early as possible because defects can be found throughout the entire software development process.

What is defect in manual testing?

Defect In Manual Testing

A defect is an anomaly which causes a deviation between the expected and actual results. It could be an error discovered once the application got deployed into production. Some software could show potential issues with both the internal and external features.

What causes most of the defects in SDLC?

Miscommunication of the requirements is one the most common problem in the software development process which causes an introduction of defects in the code. It means erroneous & lack of communication in the software development process

Who will close the defect?

“It’s a documentation issue.” The owner should still be the one closing the bug so that they have the chance to ensure that the revised documentation correctly addresses the issue.

Business Analysis Life Cycle – How It Works

The Business Analysis Life Cycle is an important part of any project management process. It helps you plan for the future by identifying all the steps that need to happen in order to complete a project successfully.

Business Analysis Life Cycle
Business Analysis Life Cycle


A business analysis life cycle (BALLC) is a structured approach to planning, executing, monitoring, and controlling a project. It provides a framework for managing projects and ensures that each phase of the project is completed according to plan.

The Business Analysis Process

The BALLC consists of four phases: Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control. Each phase has its own set of activities that must be performed in order to complete the process successfully.

The Business Analyst Role

A business analyst plays an integral role in the development of software solutions by providing guidance and direction to other members of the team. They also ensure that the solution meets the needs of the organization.

The Business Analyst Toolkit

The Business Analyst ToolKit provides a framework for understanding the process of business analysis. This includes the following sections:

  • Introduction
  • What Is Business Analysis?
  • Why Do We Need Business Analysis?
  • Who Needs To Know About Business Analysis?
  • What Are The Different Types Of Business Analysis?
  • How Does Business Analysis Work?
  • How Should I Start My Career As A Business Analyst?
  • Where Can I Find More Information On Business Analysis?
  • Resources
  1. Business analysis is a process that helps business owners understand their businesses and how they work. It involves gathering information about the business, analyzing it, and then making recommendations based on what was learned.
  1. There are four major steps involved in business analysis:
  • Understand the problem
  • Identify potential solutions
  • Evaluate each solution
  • Implement the best solution
  1. Each step in the business analysis process should be completed before moving onto the next step. However, some steps may need to be repeated if additional information is discovered later.
  1. The first step in the business analysis is understanding the problem. This includes identifying the current situation and determining whether the problem exists.
  1. Once the problem is identified, the second step is to identify potential solutions. Potential solutions could be internal (within the company), external (outside the company), or both.
  1. After potential solutions have been identified, the third step is evaluating each solution. Solutions are evaluated based on three criteria: cost, risk, and benefit.
  1. Finally, after each solution has been evaluated, the final step is implementing the best solution. This means choosing the solution that offers the highest level of benefit at the lowest possible cost.
  1. In order to complete the business analysis process, it is necessary to gather information about the business. Information can be gathered through interviews, surveys, observations, and document reviews.
  1. Interviewing employees is a great way to gather information about the problems and potential solutions. Employees who are knowledgeable about the business can provide valuable insight into the issues facing the company.
  1. Surveys are useful tools for gathering information about the problems and solutions. These surveys can be conducted online or via paper questionnaires.


In this section, we will discuss what Business Analysis is, why do we need it, who needs to know about it, different types of business analysis, how does business analysis work, how should I start my career as a business analyst, where can I find more information on business analysis, and resources.

  1.  Top 15 Business Analysis Blogs and Websites To Follow
  2. What is business process Modelling?
  3. Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task?
  4. What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation?

Invest User Story Examples

Let us observe some Invest User Story Examples in this article, User stories are a way to describe a feature in terms that users will understand. They’re also a great way to communicate the value of a new feature to stakeholders.

Invest User Story Examples
Invest User Story Examples

Why User Stories Are Important

A user story is a short description of what a user does when interacting with a particular piece of software. It’s usually written as a sentence or two describing the steps involved in completing a task.

The Three Types of User Stories

There are three different types of user stories: use cases, acceptance criteria, and user journeys. Each type has its own purpose and should be used appropriately.

Use Cases: These are the most common type of user story. They describe a scenario where a user interacts with a system. Use cases are often used by developers to explain how a new feature will work.

Acceptance Criteria: This type of user story describes a set of requirements that must be met before a feature can be released. Acceptance criteria are typically used by project managers to ensure that features meet business needs.

User Journeys: These are more complex than other types of user stories because they focus on the entire customer journey. They help teams understand how users interact with products and services.

Writing User Stories

A user story is a short description of what a user does when interacting with a product or service. It’s also known as a “user story.”

A user story is a short narrative describing a particular interaction between a user and a product or service. In other words, it’s a brief description of what a user would do if he or she were using a product or service.

Using User Stories to Plan Product Development

User stories are used by product managers to plan product development. They help teams understand the needs of users and prioritize features based on those needs.

User stories are written narratives that describe a typical use case for a feature. They provide a clear picture of what a user will do when interacting with a product.

How to Write Good User Stories

A good user story should answer three questions: What does the user need? Why does he/she need it? And finally, how will the user benefit from using it?

User story examples are great ways to demonstrate how user stories should be written. These examples show what a good user story looks like and how they can be applied to real-world situations.

  1. A user story is a short description of a specific task performed by a person using a product.

A user story example would look something like this:

As a, I want so that I can.

The first sentence describes who does the action (the role), what they do (the goal) and why they need to perform the action (benefits).

  1. User stories are written in plain English and use simple language.

They are not technical jargon or overly complex sentences.

  1. Use verbs to describe actions.

Use active voice rather than passive voice.

  1. Include details about the context of the situation.

Describe the environment where the user story takes place.

  1. Be concise.

Keep your user story under 100 words.

  1. Write user stories for both internal and external users.

User Stories are a way of describing how users interact with software. A user story describes a specific task or goal that a user wants to accomplish using a product. User stories are written in plain English and should not use technical jargon.

Here are some examples of user stories:

As a teacher I want to be able to easily create lessons and assign them to students.

As a student I want to be able view my assignments and grades without logging in.

As a parent I want to be able track my child’s progress at school.

As a teacher I am looking for a tool to help me manage my class schedule.

As a teacher we need to have access to our lesson plans.

As a teacher, I want to be able find out what my students did wrong on their homework assignment.

As a teacher my students need to be able to submit assignments online.

As a teacher i want to be able to share information about upcoming events with my students.

As a teacher the system should allow teachers to collaborate with each other.

As a teacher there should be a way to communicate with parents via email.

As a teacher students should be able to access their gradebook online.

As a parent, I want to be notified when my child gets home safely after school.

You may go through the below articles to know more about Invest User Story Examples.

  1. What is Agile User Story Acceptance Criteria ?
  2. User Story Examples and User Stories
  3. How to write user stories effectively in Agile?
  4. How to Write Acceptance Criteria ?


What is INVEST in user story?

INVEST principle of User stories is acronym for User stories being Independent, Negotiable, Valuable, Estimable, Small and Testable. Independent:User stories should be independent. Team should be able to choose User stories in the backlog to work on in any order

How do you write a good user story investing?

Under the INVEST criteria, good user stories are:

  1. Independent.
  2. Negotiable.
  3. Valuable.
  4. Estimable.
  5. Small.
  6. Testable.

What is an example of a good user story?

For example, user stories might look like: As Max, I want to invite my friends, so we can enjoy this service together. As Sascha, I want to organize my work, so I can feel more in control. As a manager, I want to be able to understand my colleagues progress, so I can better report our sucess and failures.

What is INVEST technique in agile?

Agile INVEST is an acronym that helps Agile teams assess the quality of a user story. Teams can use INVEST as a guide to creating meaningful user stories — if the story does not meet one or more of the INVEST criteria in Agile, teams may consider rewording or even rewriting it altogether.

What is INVEST technique?

Bill Wake came up with the INVEST acronym to help us remember guidelines for writing effective user stories: Independent, Negotiable, Valuable, Estimatable, Small, and Testable.

What are three elements of INVEST choose three?

INVEST is an acronym which encompasses the following concepts which make up a good user story:

  • Independent.
  • Negotiable.
  • Valuable.
  • Estimable.
  • Small.
  • Testable.

What are different types of user stories?

The three types:

  • User-Stories. A simple one or two-sentence statement from an end-user point of view about the product and its roles and abilities. …
  • Non-User Stories. A simple statement from a non-user perspective about internal tools and features that are needed to better serve and resolve a user story. …
  • Spikes.

What is INVEST and smart in agile?

INVEST are guidelines for quickly evaluating the quality of user stories. Also the acronym SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-boxed) can be used for tasks resulting from the technical decomposition of user stories.

Which 3 elements should a user story have?

The three elements of the standard user story template address: Who wants the functionalityWhat it is they wantWhy they want it

Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task?

Let us discuss in this article about Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task?, Requirements elicitation is a critical step in software development. It helps teams understand the needs of users and stakeholders, and ensures that the product meets those needs.

Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task
Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task

This article will help you understand why requirements elicitation is difficult.

Requirements elicitation is not easy. In fact, it’s one of the hardest tasks in software engineering. There are several reasons why requirements elicitation is so hard. First, there are often multiple stakeholders involved in the project. Each stakeholder has different goals and priorities. Second, the requirements themselves are complex. They are usually expressed as a set of statements describing what the system should do. Third, requirements are dynamic. They evolve during the design phase, when new ideas emerge and old ones are discarded. Finally, requirements are ambiguous. They are vague and open to interpretation.

The Business Domain.

To understand how requirements are developed, we need to first understand the business domain. This includes the problem being solved by the product, the market, and the customers. It also includes the organization’s mission, vision, values, and culture. These elements help define the boundaries of the business domain.

Contextual Understanding.

Once we have defined the business domain, we must understand the context within which the requirements will be used. We do this through interviews with stakeholders who use the system and through observation of the work environment.

The Process of Requirements Elicitation.

In order to elicit requirements, we need to understand the business domain and its constraints. This means that we need to understand what the user needs to accomplish and how the user accomplishes those tasks. It also means that we need to identify the constraints that limit the user’s ability to achieve his or her goals.

The Value of Requirements Engineering.

Requirements engineering (RE) is a discipline that helps us to understand the business domain by identifying the requirements needed to support the business objectives. RE is a systematic approach to gathering requirements from stakeholders and translating them into a set of functional specifications.

Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task?

  1. There is no standard method of requirements elicitation.
  2. There is no single best way to elicit requirements.
  3. There is no single right answer.
  4. Requirements elicitation is not a science.
  5. Requirements elicitation is a social activity.
  6. Requirements elicitation is subjective.
  7. Requirements elicitation is iterative.
  8. Requirements elicitation is complex.
  9. Requirements elicitation is time-consuming.
  10. Requirements elicitation is expensive.
  11. Requirements elicitation is difficult to automate.
  12. Requirements elicitation is hard to scale.
  13. Requirements elicitation is risky.
  14. Requirements elicitation is error prone.
  1. There is no standardization

There is no standardization between different cultivators, growers, and researchers. Each individual has their own set of requirements and preferences. This makes it difficult to determine what is best for each individual.

  1. There is no consensus on how to measure

The way we measure our crops varies greatly depending on who is doing the measuring. Measuring is done using various methods including weight, volume, area, height, and density. These measurements are then converted into units of measurement. Different units have different standards and ranges.

  1. There is no agreement on what constitutes a good yield

What constitutes a good yield differs based on the type of product being grown. Cannabis is not the only crop that requires nutrients. Other crops require different amounts of nutrients than cannabis.

  1. There is no agreement about what constitutes a healthy crop

Healthy means different things to different people. What is considered healthy may vary depending on the person doing the evaluation.

  1. There is no agreement regarding the amount of nutrients needed

Different types of nutrients need different amounts of nutrients. One plant may need 10 grams of nitrogen while another plant may need 20 grams of nitrogen.

  1. There is no agreement over whether to use synthetic or natural nutrients

Synthetic nutrients are those that are manufactured in a lab. They are often times cheaper than natural ones. However, they do not provide any of the benefits that nature provides. Synthetics are also known to cause problems if used incorrectly.

Natural nutrients are those that are derived from nature. They are much less expensive than synthetics and offer many of the same benefits.

  1. There is no agreement concerning the time at which nutrients should be applied

Below articles may help you to understand more about Why Is Requirements Elicitation A Difficult Task?

  1. What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation?
  2. Requirement Elicitation Techniques
  3. Elicitation Techniques used by Business Analyst.

What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation?

Let us discuss here What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation?

The first step in requirements elicitation is to understand the problem that needs to be solved. This includes understanding the business goals, user stories, and use cases.

What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation
What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation

Define the problem.

Once you understand the problem, you need to define it. You should write down what the problem is, why it exists, and how it will impact users.

Identify stakeholders.

Stakeholders are people who have an interest in the product or service being developed. They might include customers, business partners, employees, investors, suppliers, regulators, and others.

Understand the business requirements.

A stakeholder analysis helps you understand what stakeholders need and how those needs will be met by the final product. It also helps you identify potential risks and opportunities associated with the project.

Develop user stories.

User stories are an effective way to communicate requirements to stakeholders. They help you describe the features and functionality of the system being developed. You should use these stories as a starting point for discussions with stakeholders.

Create acceptance criteria.

Acceptance criteria are a set of statements describing what the user expects to see when using the product. These statements are used to determine whether the product meets its stated purpose.

What Is The First Step Of Requirement Elicitation?

  1. The first step of requirement elicitation is to identify what the problem is. What is the issue? What is the concern? Once you have identified the problem, then you need to determine if it is a problem at all. If it is not a problem, then you don’t need to do anything about it. You just need to accept the status quo. However, if it is a problem, then you need some sort of solution.
  1. Next, you need to figure out how much of the problem exists. How big is the problem? How many people are affected by the problem? How often does the problem occur? Are there any symptoms associated with the problem? These questions help you understand the scope of the problem and how severe it is.
  1. Now that you know the severity of the problem, you need to decide whether or not you want to fix it. Do you want to solve the problem? Do you want to prevent the problem from happening again? Do you want to reduce the amount of time spent on fixing the problem? Do you even want to fix the problem? All these questions help you decide whether or not you should take action.
  1. After deciding whether or not you want something done about the problem, you need a plan. A plan helps you organize your thoughts and make sure that you’re doing everything correctly. A plan also helps you avoid making mistakes. Mistakes happen when you try to do something without having a plan.
  1. Finally, once you have a plan, you need to execute the plan. Executing a plan means following through on your decisions. If you decided to fix the problem, then you would follow through on that decision. If you decided to prevent the problem from occurring again, then you would implement a system to ensure that the problem doesn’t happen again.

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