What are wireframes?

Topics Covered in this Article:

1.       What are wireframes?

2.     When wireframes to be created?

3.       Some of the advantages of wireframes?

4.       How to create wireframes?

5.       Why wireframes are required?

What are wireframes

1.        What are wireframes?

In simple words we can say wireframe is a diagram, Team use this diagram to understand how the developed product should be.  It helps to internal and external stake holders to understand the same.

 If we have good skills, then we can create mockups and proto types also for better understanding and it provides clear picture to the team.

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2.       When wire-frames to be created?

The wireframes or mockups or prototypes should be created before the software development is started. It helps to minimize rework and save the resource time.

If we are following waterfall methodology then wireframes should be created before development stage.

It does not matter how we are preparing the wireframes but ensure it is important that the wireframe designer (UI/UX designer), understands the information that has to be displayed on the screen.

The designer or UI developer has to really understand how the user will interact with the system. If they understand clearly what is the requirement then only they can prepare the wireframes.

So it is very important that requirements should be gathered properly before creating wireframes.

As we discussed in previous articles requirements can be gathered with using multiple elicitation techniques and same will be documented in relevant artifacts.

As requirements will be updated as User Stories or use cases, same will help to        design the wireframes.

3.      Advantages of Wire-frames.

a.      By using wire-frames we can prevent the rework.

b.      It saves resources time.

c.       Wire-frames are easy to use and understand.

d.      It avoids the confusion and misunderstanding within the team members.

e.      Wire-frames are used by the team to have a share understanding of the same information.

f.        Wire-frames are used to help design the user interface.

g.      Coding (Technical) skills not required. 

4.      How to create wire-frames?

There are tools available to create wire-frames. Some of the tools are free and open source; we can use the same to create wire-frames.

And even with using paper and pencil also we can design the wire-frames; or by using white board and pen also we can create the wire-frames, the ultimate goal to create wire-frame is make developers to understand what and how the screen should be.

But using software also has advantages such as data storage, data retrieval and wire-frame reusability. If we use software then we can use this wire-frames in future also when ever required.

To properly create the wire-frames, we need to understand what the buttons to be available in screen are and what the functionality is. And we need to understand what fields to be available on the screen.

By using some open source tools we can create the wire-frames even if you do not have the coding skills.

5.      Why wire-frames are required?

There are so many ways to document the requirements and make development team to understand, but wireframes will help to understand the requirement clearly. Wireframes are easy to draw and easy to understand.


What are wireframes in design?

The designs you received are called wireframes (sometimes called wires, mockups, or mocks). A wireframe is a schematic, a blueprint, useful to help you and your programmers and designers think and communicate about the structure of the software or website you’re building.

What is the use of wireframe?

wireframe is commonly used to lay out content and functionality on a page which takes into account user needs and user journeys. Wireframes are used early in the development process to establish the basic structure of a page before visual design and content is added.

What are wireframes and mockups?

mockup is a static wireframe that includes more stylistic and visual UI details to present a realistic model of what the final page or application will look like. A good way to think of it is that a wireframe is a blueprint and a mockup is a visual model.

What should wireframes include?

wireframe is a two-dimensional illustration of a page’s interface that specifically focuses on space allocation and prioritization of content, functionalities available, and intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics.

What are the different types of wireframes?

There are three main types of wireframes: low-fidelity wireframes, mid-fidelity wireframes, and high-fidelity wireframes.

Is Wireframing UX or UI?

Wireframing is a practice used by UX designers which allows them to define and plan the information hierarchy of their design for a website, app, or product. … Without the distractions of colors, typeface choices or text, wireframing lets you plan the layout and interaction of your interface.

Scrum Board Example

The Scrum Board Example and what is Scrum Board

Let us observe scrum board and scrum board  example in detail below.

Topics Covered in this Article:

  1. What is Scrum Board?
  2. What are the advantages of Scrum Board?
  3. Who will use the Scrum Board?
  4. How Scrum Board will work?
  5. What are the columns in a Scrum Board?
  6. What are the columns in a Scrum Board?
  7. What is Scrum Board?

Scrum Board is a visual tool, if you are using JIRA tool to track the requirements, then you can see the Scrum Board and Kanban Board, we can customize the boards as per project needs.

What are the advantages of Scrum Board?

  1. It provides clear picture to the team, by seeing the Scrum Board Scrum team can understand on what user stories or requirements team is working and what is the status of those user stories or requirements. For Example it is under process or completed or yet to start or prioritize.
  2. It helps with team collaboration and interaction because the team members are able to view and discuss how the project is going on. Team can discuss and work on those user stories particularly if any issue or challenge in delivering that requirement.
  3. It helps with resource planning management because the team members can see what they are working on and know how much more work they can take on in a particular sprint.

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Who will use the Scrum Board?

Scrum team uses this scrum board; it helps the team to understand the status of requirements. For example how many requirements/ user stories in backlog and how many completed out of those and how many user stories or requirements pending.

It helps to manage the project in effective manner.

How Scrum Board will work?

A Scrum board can be as simple as a whiteboard with colored sticky notes or if you are using JIRA then we can see in JIRA also.

The board is split into columns which show the various stages that the user stories are currently in. The user stories are prioritized and chosen based on team events such as sprint planning, sprint retrospective, and the daily Scrum stand up meetings.

Scrum Board Example
Scrum Board Example

What are the columns in a Scrum Board?

The columns that are commonly used in a scrum board include the following:

  1. Backlog: Whenever user story is created, same should be added to the backlog. Here we added requirement or user story to the backlog but not yet prioritized. Once user story is reviewed and prioritized then same will be assigned to the development team members to develop and deliver the user story. User stories will be reviewed and prioritized during product backlog refinement meeting.
  2. Development: Once the user stories prioritized and assigned, then this user stories will move to next stage i.e. Development Stage or Active Stage to work on those user stories. Once the team member is done with the work, it is moved to next column which is Quality assurance column or we can say testing column.
  3. Quality Assurance (QA): Once the team member is completed work on the user story, they move it to the QA column to be tested. The QA tester tests the work and based on the test results i.e. passed or failed, the user story is either moved to the next column which is the demo column or moved back to the development column for rework.
  4. Demo: If the user stories or requirements pass the QA tests, then move to the Demo column. Team gives demo to stake holders on what they developed and how it works. The user stories in the Demo column are presented in the Demo session meetings.
  5. Closed: Once the user stories have been completed above all stages, then it will move to closed column because the work has been completed.

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What is a scrum board?

Scrum Board is a tool used to help organize a Scrum project and add visibility to project progress. Initially, a Scrum Board was often a physical board, such as a whiteboard with sticky notes or cue cards attached.

How do you use a scrum board?

How To Use A Scrum Task Board?
Step 1: Identify user stories. During the sprint planning phase, your team should select each product backlog item that they would like to work on in the sprint. …
Step 2: Assign tasks. …
Step 3: Work on project tasks. …
Step 4: Finish all tasks. …
Step 5: Review sprints.

How is scrum used in everyday life?

It takes only 5 steps to implement Scrum in your life: manage the Product Backlog, plan Sprints, keep it visual and transparent, time-box work and monitor progress, get a coach. Don’t take my word. Try it and see if it works for you.

Is Jira a Scrum or Kanban?

Since Jira version 7. x, Jira Agile has become Jira Software, which is a tool developed by Atlassian and designed to support Agile methodologies – both Scrum and Kanban – within Jira. It enables project teams who are already using Jira to adapt to Agile practices, the easy way.

What is the difference between Kanban and Scrum?

Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the business value in the shortest time. Kanban is a visual system for managing software development work. … Scrum prescribes time-boxed iterations. Kanban focuses on planning a different duration for individual iteration.

How do I create a scrum board in Jira?

Step 1: Create a board
Click Search ( ) > View all boards.
Click Create board.
Select a board type (either agility, Scrum, or Kanban).
Select how you want your board created – You can either create a new project for your new board, or add your board to one or more existing projects.

What is a scrum board in Jira?

The Jira Scrum Board is the tool that unites teams around a single goal and promotes iterative, incremental delivery.

User Story Examples and User Stories

Let us observe some user story examples here. It helps us to provide overview how to write user stories.

User Story Examples
User Story Examples

Feature: Refund item

Scenario: XYZ returns a faulty item

Given XYZ has bought a item for so and so amount
And he/ she has a receipt
When he/ She returns the item
Then XYZ should be refunded with so and so amount

Scenario: User enters correct user name and password

Given that I am on the sign-in page
When I enter my user name and password correctly
And click ‘Sign In’
Then I am taken to the dashboard

 Scenario: User does NOT enter correct user name and password

Given that I am on the sign-in page
When I enter my user name and password incorrectly
and click ‘Sign In’
Then I see an error message ‘Sorry, incorrect user name or password.”

User Story:

As a Branch User

I want to upload customer documents into DMS

So that I can view or retrieve documents when required.

Scenario:  User uploads a document

Given a document is uploaded,

When the upload request is received

Then allow the upload if the file name is one of the following: (file list here)

Allowed file names: Account opening form, PAN, Voter ID, Passport.

Scenario: Upload documents into DMS (Data Management System)

Given that the CRT Customer Profile is created,

When the documents are uploaded,

Then send all the uploaded documents to DMS (Data Management System)

Scenario: Ensure so and so documents have been uploaded.

Given a document is uploaded,

When the upload request is received

Then ensure to maintain what documents received and what documents uploaded.

Scenario: File size of each document is between x and y kb

Given a document is uploaded,

When the upload request is received

Then allow the upload if the document size is between x and y kb

Scenario:  Document format/type is so and so

Given a document is uploaded,

When the upload request is received

Then allow the upload if the document format / or type is so and so.

Allowed file formats: .pdf,  .tif  .jpg

UC2:  User should be notified with successful upload of documents.

User Story:

As a Branch User

I want to get notification when documents successfully uploaded.

So that I can ensure that documents successfully uploaded into DMS.

Scenario: Documents uploaded successfully

Given a document is uploaded successfully

When the uploaded request is received

Then user should get notification as “Document uploaded successfully”

It should be done via SMS or mail id.

I mentioned some of the user story examples above.

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What is Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)?

What is Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)?

What is Requirements Traceability Matrix
What is Requirements Traceability Matrix

Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document, we can prepare in simple excel format also, it maps and traces client requirement with test cases. It captures all requirements given by the client/ Captured in BRD or FRD/FSD. The main goal of Requirement Traceability Matrix is to verify that all requirements are checked via test cases so that no functionality is unchecked during Software testing.

Why Requirement traceability matrix or RTM is required?

A Requirement traceability matrix is used to record and track the relationship of the project requirements to the design, documentation, development, testing and release of the project/product. This is done by maintaining an excel sheet which lists the complete user and system requirements for the system (in form of use cases) which are in turn mapped to the respective documents like Functional Requirement, Design Document, Software Module, Test Case Number, etc.

An RTM is maintained throughout the lifecycle of the various releases in a project and it’s a vital document to track project scope, requirements and changes in any project.

The Requirement Traceability Matrix or RTM Contains below:

  • Requirement ID
  • Requirement Description
  • Functional Requirement
  • Status
  • Architectural/Design Document
  • Technical Specification
  • Software Module
  • Test Case Number
  • Tested In

Why Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is needed?

  • Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)is used to trace the requirements.
  • To test all the test cases.
  • To ensure all the requirements are covered and tested/verified.
  • By using Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM), we can able to identify if any requirement is not covered.
  • It helps to cover the all the requirements and all are validated and tested as per the requirement.

What is the Advantage of Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM):

  1. We can ensure all the test cases covered.
  2. It allows to identify the missing functionality easily
  3. It is easy to track the overall test execution status
  4. It allows updating the test cases if any change in requirements or any change request comes.
  5. We can ensure all the requirements covered and tested.
  6. It helps to improve the quality of the product.
  7. As we covered most of the test scenarios it helps to improve the client satisfaction.
  8. As we tested most of the test scenarios it helps to avoid the escalation from the client.

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Why Requirements Traceability Matrix  or RTM is Important?

The main responsibility of Testers or QA team to understand the Business Requirements/ Client requirements. And they need to test the application end to end. And team responsible to deliver the product without bugs or Defects. To achieve this goal, every QA or Tester should understand the requirement clearly and create positive and negative test cases.

Requirements provided by the client should be split into different scenarios. And Team needs to prepare or write the test cases as per the requirements, Team ensures to cover all the requirements and scenarios when writing test cases. Once team writes the test cases then team starts the testing for each Test Case. Each of this Test case must be executed individually.

How testing team or QA team will ensure to test all scenarios.

Here we may think that how testing team/ QA team to make sure that the requirement is tested considering all possible scenarios/cases? How to ensure that any requirement is not left out of the testing cycle?

A simple way is to trace the requirement with its corresponding test scenarios and test cases which team already written the test cases.

The traceability matrix is simply a worksheet that contains the requirements with its all possible test scenarios and cases and their current state, i.e. if they have been passed or failed. This would help the testing team to understand the level of testing activities done for the specific product.

I hope this article helped you to provide overview on what is Requirements Traceability Matrix  or RTM.

To know more about what is Requirements Traceability Matrix you can browse on Google to get more knowledge.

In a Business Analyst view this article is enough to understand what is Requirements Traceability Matrix or RTM.

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What is requirement traceability matrix with example?

Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document that maps and traces user requirement with test cases. It captures all requirements proposed by the client and requirement traceability in a single document, delivered at the conclusion of the Software devlopement life cycle

What is the purpose of the requirements traceability matrix?

requirements traceability matrix is a document that demonstrates the relationship between requirements and other artifacts. It’s used to prove that requirements have been fulfilled. And it typically documents requirements, tests, test results, and issues.

What are the 3 types of requirements traceability?

There are three types of RTM: forward traceability, backward traceability, and bidirectional traceability

What are the four types of requirements traceability?

The Four Types of Derived Requirements Traceability
Forward to Requirements. When customer needs evolve, requirements may have to be adjusted in response. …
Backward From Requirements. …
Forward From Requirements. …
Backward to Requirements. …

Who prepares RTM?

#1) Business Requirements

It is usually prepared by ‘Business Analysts’ or the project ‘Architect’ (depending upon organization or project structure)

What is RTM tool?

In a software development project, Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document which is used to validate that all the requirements are linked to test cases. … A Requirements Traceability Matrix is usually in tabular format as it holds multiple relationships between requirements and test cases

How do you create a requirement traceability matrix?

How to Create a Traceability Matrix in Excel
Define Your Goal. …
Gather Your Artifacts. …
Create a Traceability Matrix Template in Excel. …
Copy and Paste Requirements From Your Requirements Document. …
Copy and Paste Test Cases From Your Test Case Document. …
Copy and Paste Test Results and Issues (If You Have Them)

Is RTM required in agile?

In agile there are no requirements but stories, so traceability matrix does not exist in traditional sense. Well, stories describe requirements but when you complete story, you close it and then you close an iteration and forget about that story. It is done, accepted, and closed.

Which phase is RTM prepared?

To answer your first point, RTM is something that is prepared as and when the requirements are ready. If you plan to adopt a practice of creating RTM in your project, you can mention this point in your Test Plan irrespective of the fact that it is created or not. Test Plan and RTM are not related.


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